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3D nanostructures for on-chip applications

The functionalization of chip based bioelectronic sensors with 3D nanoelectrodes helps to better understand and control cellular growth. Biohybrid chips featuring such 3D mushroom on the nanoscale can not only improve the recording capabilities but also help to guide cellular networks very effectively.



On chip guidance and recording of cardiomyocytes with 3D mushroom shaped electrodes.

Francesca Santoro, Jan Schnitker, Gregory Panaitov, Andreas Offenhäusser


On chip guidance and recording of cardiomyocytes with 3D mushroom shaped electrodesSchematic figure of a Multi Electrode Array featuring 3D nanoelectrodes for guidance and recording. The insets show colorized SEM images of cardiomyocyte cells on top of the nanostructures. Stripes of multiple nanopillars guide the outgrowth of the cells between adjacent electrodes, Inidividual 3D nanopillars

3D nanostructures represent an innovative approach for improving the coupling between cells and biosensors. Researchers in our group recently developed a biosensor (Multi Electrode Array) capable of simultaneously guiding in a well-defined pattern and recording of action potentials from HL-1 cells. Modern fabrication and investigation methods such as electron beam lithography, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) help us to structure and analyze the interface between HL-1 cells and such 3D mushroom shaped electrodes at the nanoscale level.


Abstract: The quality of the recording and stimulation capabilities of multielectrode arrays (MEAs) substantially depends on the interface properties and the coupling of the cell with the underlying electrode area. The purpose of this work was the investigation of a three-dimensional nanointerface, enabling simultaneous guidance and recording of electrogenic cells (HL-1) by utilizing nanostructures with a mushroom shape on MEAs.


Nano Letters 2013 Nov 13;13(11):5379-84. doi: 10.1021/nl402901y