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Peter Grünberg Institute / Institute of Complex Systems

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Nanostructured Interfaces

Nanotechnology fabrication processes offer the possibility of designing functional interfaces for cell-chip communication. We develop nanoporous, nanofluidic, and nanopatterned interfaces for localized chemical stimulation of cells as well as on-chip biosensors using template-based nanofabrication methods.

Nanoporous alumina templates

Nanoporous Alumina Templates

On-chip nanoporous patches in combination with backside microfluidics can be used to chemically stimulate individual cells in a network. To this end, we transfer nanoporous templates via reactive ion etching to suitable materials for cell interfaces. The templates are grown by a well-known and simple self-alignment process during aluminum anodization and can be directly fabricated on a chip.

Nanoporous electrodes

Nanoporous Electrodes

Nanoporous dual-electrode systems show great potential for redox cycling applications. The dual-electrodes may be considered as an array of millions of nanometer sized sub-sensors – all connected in parallel. Every sub-sensor therein occupies 0.01 µm2. The electrode spacing can be well below 100 nm. We develop strategies to integrate such nanoporous electrodes into on-chip sensing devices.

Nanoporous electrodes

Nanopatterned Electrodes

On-chip anodized alumina films can also be used as templates for the fabrication of vertically aligned metal nanopillars or carbon nanotubes. This method allows changing the interfacial properties of microelectrodes for enhanced electrical cell coupling.

Additional Information


Jun.-Prof. Dr. Bernhard Wolfrum

Tel.:  +49-2461-61-3285


M. Wesche, M. Hüske, A. Yakushenko, D. Brüggemann, D. Mayer, A. Offenhäusser, and B. Wolfrum: A nanoporous alumina microelectrode array for functional cell-chip coupling. Nanotechnology, 42 (49), 495303 (8pp) (2012)


D. Brüggemann, K.E. Michael, B. Wolfrum, and A. Offenhäusser:

Adhesion and survival of electrogenic cells on gold nanopillar array electrodes.Int. J. Nano and Biomaterials, 4(2), 108-127, (2012)


M. Hüske and B. Wolfrum: Fabrication of a nanoporous dual-electrode system for electrochemical redox cycling. Physica Status Solidi A, 208 (2011) 1265-1269


D. Brüggemann, B. Wolfrum, V. Maybeck, Y. Mourzina, M. Jansen, and A. Offenhäusser: Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for extracellular recording from electrogenic cells. Nanotechnology, 22 (2011)


J. Bhattacharya, A. Kisner, A. Offenhäusser, and B. Wolfrum: Anodization of aluminum films for the fabrication of nanoporous lipid bilayer support structures. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 2 (2011) 104-10


B. Wolfrum, Y. Mourzina, F. Sommerhage, A. Offenhäusser, Suspended nanoporous membranes as interfaces for neuronal biohybrid systems. Nano Letters, 2006, 6, (3), pp 453-457.


B. Wolfrum, Y. Mourzina, D. Mayer, D. Schwaab, A. Offenhäusser, Fabrication of large-scale patterned gold nanopillar arrays on a silicon substrate using imprinted porous alumina templates. Small 2006, 2, (11), pp 1256-1260.