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Thermal shock...

Tungsten sample exposed to 0.63 GW/m² with a pulse length of 1 ms for 100 pulses at room temperature

… is mainly related to surface near damages (micrometers up to hundreds of micrometers) and is therefore tested using components as well as materials (also without active cooling, e.g. small blocks of pure tungsten). The thermal shock pulse increases the surface temperature of the material by several hundred degrees in a millisecond. This results in steep temperature gradients which produce high local stresses due to thermal expansion. Comparison of the performance of materials is done by low pulse number tests more and high pulse number tests.more