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Magnetic and electric degrees of freedom are both employed in information technology and other applications. Their combination and coupling in a “multiferroic” offers potential for improvements, for example in form of magnetic memories writable by magnetoelectric coupling.

Multiferroics can be divided into two classes, type-I in which ferroelectricity is established independently of magnetism, and type-II, in which ferroelectricity directly results from certain magnetic orderingsThe two types have different challenges with regards to applications, for example for type-II multiferroics the temperature scale is usually very low whereas type-I multiferroics often lack a strong magnetoelectric coupling.

  • Spin-wave and electromagnon dispersions in multiferroic MnWO4 as observed by neutron spectroscopy: Isotropic Heisenberg exchange versus anisotropic Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

  • Crystal structure, incommensurate magnetic order, and ferroelectricity in (Mn,Cu)WO4

  • Charge and spin order in rare earth ferrites: magnetoelectric?

  • Domains of vector spin chirality in the ferroelectric phase of a Y-type hexaferrite

  • Long-range charge order in YbFe2O4: similar ion size leads to similar order

  • Fourfold charge order in stoichiometric YFe2O4

  • Magnetic structures and magnetoelastic coupling of Fe-doped hexagonal manganites Lu(Mn,Fe)O3

  • Charge order in LuFe2O4 is not ferroelectric

  • Magnetic phase competition induced by frustration in LuFe2O4