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Integrated Circuits for Quantum Computers

Quantum Computer

Bloch sphereBloch sphere, used to depict and explain the quantum mechanical states in a qubit. Ground states are |0> and |1>, the current state is denoted by |?>.
Copyright: Foschungszentrum Jülich GmbH

Quantum computers use quantum mechanical properties like superposition and entanglement of quantum states. Utilizing these effects to perform calculations allows a possible exponential speed up for certain computational problems which are very costly or even impossible to solve with classical computers. Computation examples where a significant speed-up is possible are the behaviour of molecules, prime factorization and searches in arrays.

One of the current objectives in quantum computation research is to operate multiple elementary units, called quantum bits (qubits), together to perform simple calculations. Additionally the solution should be scalable in order to build a complete quantum computer based on the same concept. The control and readout of the qubits and the vital error correction need to be implemented as dedicated electronic circuits.

Integrated Circuits

Electronics with the prospect to fulfil the requirements for a quantum computer are integrated circuits. Compared to state of the art discrete setups integrated circuits have advantages in size, power consumption and mature fabrication processes.
The goal of the research at the ZEA-2 is to design a proof of principle electronic system demonstrator. The electronic system interconnects various components of a quantum computer on different hierarchical layers like qubits, error correction and readout. The design is focused on semiconductor spin qubits but is going to be parameterized to allow for the operation of different error correction algorithms and qubit realizations.

Cross section of a spin qubitCross section of a spin qubit made of a III-V hetero structure. Electrons are confined to a double quantum dot with the 2D-electron gas (2DEG) of the hetero structure and the electrical potential controlled by metal electrodes on top of the device
Copyright: Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH