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CMOS DC Digital-to-Analog Converter for scalable cryogenic control electronics in Quantum Computers

Cryogenic CMOS

Bloch sphereCryogenic CMOS
Copyright: Foschungszentrum Jülich GmbH

The construction of an universal Quantum Computer requires the control and readout of millions of physical Quantum Bits (Qubits). This calls for highly scalable classical control electronics, operated in close proximity to the Qubits located inside a dilution refrigerator reaching for temperatures down to few milli-Kelvin.
We want to show first proof of principle for using a contemporary commercially available CMOS technology with a sub 100 nm process node to control Qubits. Challenges like the ultra-low temperature regime giving rise to cryogenic anomalies in the technology and lack of valid models must be overcome. Additionally, the characteristic Qubit requirements like extreme low noise and accurate control signaling must be satisfied while keeping the power consumption at a bare minimum to account for the available cooling power of about 1 mW.
Characterization and modeling of the CMOS technology for cryogenic environments will be necessary alongside developing application specific circuit designs. The goal is to design, validate and operate a complete CMOS integrated circuit (IC) system, generating the bias and control signals for up to 50 Qubits.

DC Digital-to-Analog Converter

Up to this point every type of solid-state Qubit requires several DC bias voltages in order to define potential wells as well as to form tunnel barriers between the Quantum Dots. In order to enable good Qubit gate fidelity very stable and low noise voltage potentials are needed. By generating these voltages in the close proximity of the Qubits a major part of interconnects could be saved when scaling the number of Qubits. Moreover, the operation of a commercial CMOS system in the same temperature regime as the Qubits itself will have been demonstrated, while accounting for the distinct previously named challenges and requirements.

DC Digital-to-Analog ConverterDC Digital-to-Analog Converter
Copyright: Foschungszentrum Jülich GmbH