Nutrients

(Model tools: DENUZ-WEKU-MEPhos)

The achievement of the good qualitative status according to the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU-MSFD) is unclear, or rather unlikely in many regions due to excessive nutrient inputs. Against this background simulation models like the reactive N-transport models GROWA-DENUZ/WEKU (Kuhr et al, 2012; Kunkel et al., 2010, Wendland et al., 2009) and the P-transport model MEPhos (Tetzlaff & Wendland, 2012; Tetzlaff et al., 2009) have been developed.

The models display a high spatial resolution (e.g. 100 x 100 m²) and consider six diffuse N and P input pathways and up to five point source nutrient inputs:

Nutrients

Model analyses include the determination of the actual nitrogen and phosphorous pollution loads, the identification of "hot spot" areas for the introduction of nutrient reduction measures, the determination of nutrient reduction levels necessary to reach quality targets for groundwater and surface waters and the prediction of the impact of concrete nutrient reduction measures.

Knowledge transfer and outreach:

Model results support the preparation of river basin management plans and programs of measures according to the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in State Agencies of the Federal German States Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein and Thüringen as well as in Republic of Slovenia. Model results of the AGRUM-projects have contributed to the German status reports 2008 and 2012 about implementation of EU nitrate directive in Germany.

Key R&D projects:

Period Funding institutionProject / topic
2021–2022Hessisches Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie (HLUG)Development of a nutrient model for the federal state of Hesse
2018-2021Bund/Länder-Arbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser (LAWA)AGRUM-DE: Development of a Germany-wide nutrient model
2020-2021Landesbetrieb für Hochwasserschutz und Wasserwirtschaft Sachsen-Anhalt (LHW)Continuation and further development of the nutrient model Sachsen-Anhalt 2020-2021
2018–2020Landesamt für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Geologie Mecklenburg - Vorpommern (LUNG)Continuation and further development of the nutrient model Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2018-2021
2020-2023Landesamt für Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und ländliche Räume Schleswig - Holstein (LLUR)Continuation and further development of the nutrient model Schleswig-Holstein
2020Hessisches Landesamt für Naturschutz, Umwelt und Geologie (HLNUG)Updating the P modelling in Hessen with regard to inputs from point and diffuse sources
2020Behörde für Umwelt, Klima, Energie und Agrarwirtschaft Hamburg (BUKEA)Balancing of phosphorus sources in the catchment area of the Alte Süderelbe
2017-2020Ministerium für Umwelt, Energie, Ernährung und Forsten Rheinland-Pfalz (MUEEF)Statewide modeling of nutrient inputs into groundwater and surface waters in Rheinland-Pfalz
2017-2019Ministerium für Energiewende, Landwirtschaft, Umwelt, Natur und Digitalisierung des Landes Schleswig-Holstein (MELUND)Further development of nutrient model Schleswig - Holstein
2017-2019Landesbetrieb für Hochwasserschutz und Wasserwirtschaft Sachsen-AnhaltFurther development of nutrient model Sachsen-Anhalt
2015-2019Landesamt für Natur, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Nordrhein-Westfalen (LANUV)Statewide modeling of water balance and nitrogen inputs into groundwater and surface waters in Nordrhein-Westfalen
2013-2016Thüringer Landesanstalt für Umwelt und Geologie (TLUG)Statewide modeling of nutrient inputs into groundwater and surface waters in Thüringen
2015-2016Landesbetrieb für Hochwasserschutz und Wasserwirtschaft Sachsen-Anhalt (LHW)Further development of nutreint model Sachsen-Anhalt
2014-2016Landesamt für Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und ländliche Räume Schleswig - Holstein (LLUR)Further development of nutreint model Schleswig - Holstein
2012-2015Umweltbundesamt UFOPLAN (UBA)Reduction of nitrate pollution in German groundwater bodies
2011-2015Niedersächsische Landesbetrieb für Wasserwirtschaft, Küsten- und Naturschutz (NLWKN)AGRUM+ Niedersachsen: Statewide modeling of nutrient inputs into groundwater, surface waters and the coastal areas in Niedersachsen
2011-2015

River Basin Commission Weser
(FGG-Weser)



AGRUM+ Weser: nutrient inputs into groundwater, surface waters and the coastal areas in the Weser basin
2012-2015Slovenian Environment Agency (EAS)Model based quantification of nitrogen input into groundwater and surface waters
2010-2015Landesamt für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Geologie Mecklenburg - Vorpommern (LUNG)Statewide modeling of nutrient inputs (N and P) into groundwater, surface waters and the coastal areas in Mecklenburg - Vorpommern
2013-2014Landesamt für Natur, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Nordrhein-Westfalen (LANUV)Regional differentiated nitrate input into groundwater
2012-2014

Umweltbehörde Hamburg (BSU )



Statewide modeling of nutrient inputs (N and P) into groundwater and surface waters in Hamburg
2010-2014Landesamt für Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und ländliche Räume Schleswig - Holstein (LLUR)Statewide modeling of nutrient inputs (N and P) into groundwater and surface waters in Schleswig - Holstein
2010-2014Landesbetrieb für Hochwasserschutz und Wasserwirtschaft Sachsen-Anhalt (LHW)Statewide modeling of nutrient inputs (N and P) into surface waters and groundwater in Sachsen - Anhalt
2008-2010Landesamt für Natur, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Nordrhein-Westfalen (LANUV)Modeling N and P inputs into groundwater and surface waters in NRW
2008-2009Niedersächsische Landesbetrieb für Wasserwirtschaft, Küsten- und Naturschutz (NLWKN)WAGRICO II: N inputs into surface waters from diffuse and point sources in Lower Saxony
2005-2009River Basin Commission Weser (FGG Weser)AGRUM: Nutrient reduction measures on the water quality of groundwater and surface water in the Weser river basin
2005-2008EU-LIFE –6th Framework programWAgriCo: Water resources management in co-operation with agriculture
2007-2008Hessisches Landesamtes für Umwelt und Geologie (HLUG)Statewide modeling of P inputs into surface waters in Hessen
2001-2005Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) - research program "River basin management“REGFLUD: Nutrient management in regional river systems in Germany
2001-2003EU 5th Framework programEUROCAT: European catchments, catchments changes and their impact on the coast
1997-2000EU 4th Framework programRANR: Regional analysis of subsurface retention of nitrogen and the impact on the export of nitrogen from land to sea
1996-1999Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) - research program "Elbe –ecology“Wasserhaushalt, Verweilzeiten und Grundwassergüte im Elbe- Einzugsgebiet (deutscher Teil)
1992-1995Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF)Nitratatlas: Atlas zum Nitratstrom in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

Key publications:

  • Brian Kronvang, Dico Fraters and Frank Wendland (Eds.) (2020): Land Use and Water Quality.- Special issue WATER, 248 pages. ISBN 978-3-03943-503-6 (Hbk); ISBN 978-3-03943-504-3 (PDF) https://doi.org/10.3390/books978-3-03943-504-3 (registering DOI)
  • Wendland, F. (Corresponding author) ; Bergmann, S. ; Eisele, M. ; Gömann, H. ; Herrmann, F. ; Kreins, P. ; Kunkel, R. (2020): Model-Based Analysis of Nitrate Concentration in the Leachate—The North Rhine-Westfalia Case Study, Germany Water 12(2), 550 - (2020) [DOI: 10.3390/w12020550]
  • Ta, P. (Corresponding author) ; Tetzlaff, B. ; Trepel, M. ; Wendland, F. (2020): Implementing a Statewide Deficit Analysis for Inland Surface Waters According to the Water Framework Directive—An Exemplary Application on Phosphorus Pollution in Schleswig-Holstein (Northern Germany) Water 12(5), 1365 - (2020) [DOI: 10.3390/w12051365]
  • Qianwen He, Frank Wendland and Frank Molkenthin (2019): The analysis of nitrogen load and simulation uncertainty using SWAT in a catchment with paddy field in China.- Water Science and Technology 80.4, 806-816. [DOI: 10.2166/wst.2019.326]
  • Wolfram Eschenbach, Dörte Budziak, · Jörg Elbracht, · Heinrich Höper, Lisa Krienen, · Ralf Kunkel, Knut Meyer, · Reinhard Well, · Frank Wendland (2018): Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Validierung flächenhaft modellierter Nitrateinträge ins Grundwassermit der N2/Ar-Methode.- Grundwasser – Zeitschrift der Fachsektion Hydrogeologie. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00767-018-0391-6
  • Ralf Kunkel, Frank Herrmann, Hans-Eberhard Kape, Luise Keller, Franka Koch, Björn Tetzlaff, & Frank Wendland (2017): Simulation of terrestrial nitrogen fluxes in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and scenario analyses how to reach N-quality targets for groundwater and the coastal waters.- Environ Earth Sci (2017) 76:146, DOI 10.1007/s12665-017-6437-8
  • Heidecke, C., Ackermann, A., Kreins, P., Kuhr, P., Kunkel, R., Tetzlaff, B., Wendland, F., Mahnkopf, J & Venohr, M. (2016): Erreichbarkeit der Nährstoffreduzierungsziele in Niedersachsen fraglich.- Wasser & Abfall 18, 7/8, 21-25.
  • Kuhn, U, Schmidt, B, Heidecke, C, Kreins, P, Ackermann, A, Wendland, F, Kunkel, R, Venohr, M, Mahnkopf, J, 2016. Nährstoffmanagement in der Flussgebietseinheit Weser im Spannungsfeld zwischen Wasserwirtschaft und Landwirtschaft - Ergebnisse des Projektes AGRUM+. Korrespondenz Wasserwirtschaft 9 (4), 216-225.
  • KUNKEL, R., H.-E. KAPE, L. KELLER, F. KOCH, B. TETZLAFF & F. WENDLAND (2016): Szenarien für die Reduzierung von Stickstoffeinträgen zum Erreichen der Grundwasser- und Meeresschutzziele in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. – Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung 60 (2), 119–134; DOI: 10.5675/HyWa_2016,2_2
  • Tetzlaff, B., Bock, A., Krause, D. u. Marowsky, K. (2015): Eutrophierungsprobleme im Altmühlsee als Folge diffuser und punktförmiger P-Einträge – 2. Managementoptionen zur Verringerung der Gewässerbelastung.- Korrespondenz Wasserwirtschaft, 8(5), 284-289, DOI: 10.3243/kwe2015.05.002.
  • Tetzlaff, B., Krause, D., Marowsky, K. u. Bock, A. (2015): Eutrophierungsprobleme im Altmühlsee als Folge diffuser und punktförmiger P-Einträge – Modellierung und Ergebnisse.- Hydrologie u. Wasserbewirtschaftung, 59(1), 23-36, DOI: 10.5675/HyWa_2015,1_2.
  • Andelov, M., Kunkel, R., Uhan,J. & Wendland, F. (2014): Determination of nitrogen reduction levels necessary to reach groundwater quality targets in Slovenia.- (Journal of Environmental Sciences, 29-9, 1806-1818)
  • Celen, M., Karpuzcu, M., Engin, G., Tetzlaff, B. & Wendland, F. (2014): Modelling of the Total Phosphorus Input Pathways in Porsuk Reservoir Catchment in Turkey.- Environmental Earth Sciences, 72:5019–5034.
  • Wendland, F., Heidecke, C., Keller, L., Kreins, P., Kuhr, P., Tetzlaff, B., Trepel, M. & Wagner, A. (2014): Räumlich differenzierte Quantifizierung der Stickstoffeinträge ins Grundwasser und die Oberflächengewässer in Schleswig-Holsteins.- (Korrespondenz Wasserwirtschaft 6/14, 327-332)
  • Björn Tetzlaff1, J. Haider, P. Kreins, Petra Kuhr, Ralf Kunkel & Frank Wendland (2013): Grid-based modelling of nutrient inputs from diffuse and point sources for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) as a tool for river basin management according to EU-WFD.- River Systems Vol. 20/3–4, p. 213–229
  • Kuhr, P., Haider, J., Kreins, P., Kunkel, R., Tetzlaff, B., Vereecken, H., & Wendland, F. (2013): Model Based Assessment of Nitrate Pollution of Water Resources on a Federal State Level for the Dimensioning of Agro-environmental Reduction Strategies: The North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) Case Study. - Water Resources Management, 27(3), 885-909.
  • Hirt, U., Kreins, P., Kuhn, U., Mahnkopf, J., Venohr, M., Wendland, F. (2012): Management options to reduce future nitrogen emissions into rivers: A case study of the Weser river basin, Germany.- Agricultural Water Management, Volume 115, 118-131.
  • Tetzlaff, B. & Wendland, F. (2012): Modelling sediment input to surface waters for Ger-man states with MEPhos: Methodology, sensitivity and uncertainty.- Water Resources Management, 165-184.
  • Tetzlaff, B., Friedrich, K., Vorderbrügge, T., Vereecken, H. & Wendland, F. (2011): Distributed modelling of mean annual soil erosion and sediment delivery rates to surface waters.- Catena, 102, 13-20.
  • Kunkel, R.,Kreins, P., Tetzlaff, B.,& Wendland, F. (2010): Forecasting the effects of EU policy measures on the nitrate pollution of groundwater and surface waters Journal of Environmental Sciences, 22 (6),872-877
  • Frank Wendland, Horst Behrendt, Ulrike Hirt, Peter Kreins, Ute Kuhn, Petra Kuhr, Ralf Kunkel Und Björn Tetzlaff (2010): Analyse von Agrar- und Umweltmaßnahmen zur Reduktion der Stickstoffbelastung von Grundwasser und Oberflächengewässer in der Flussgebietseinheit Weser.- Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung, 54. Jahrgang, Heft 4, August 2010, 231 – 244.
  • F. Wendland, C. Jahnke, R. Kunkel, M. Meier, M. Schmalenstroer, C. Schütz & H.-J. Voigt (2010): Zur Beziehung zwischen Nmin – Gehalt im Boden und Nitratkonzentration im oberflächennahen Grundwasser Grundwasser.- GWF-Wasser/Abwasser pp. 384-393
  • Tetzlaff,B.; Hake,J.-F.*; Vereecken,H.; Wendland,F. (2010): Sustainable use of water resources in Europe and the role of integrated modelling of phosphate fluxes International Journal of Global Environmental Issues (IJGENVI), 10 (2010) 1/2, 172 – 193
  • Tetzlaff, B., H. Vereecken, R. Kunkel & F. Wendland (2009): Modelling phosphorus inputs from agricultural sources and urban areas in river basins. Environmental Geology, 57, 183-193.
  • Wendland, F., H. Behrendt, H. Gömann, U. Hirt, P. Kreins, U. Kuhn, R. Kunkel & B. Tetzlaff (2009): Determination of nitrogen reduction levels necessary to reach groundwater quality targets in large river basins: the Weser basin case study, Germany. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 85 (1), 63-78.
  • Kunkel, R., M. Eisele & F. Wendland (2008): Assessing necessary nutrient reduction for measurement planning in groundwater bodies. Water Science and Technology, 58 (12), 2295-2302.
  • Kunkel, R., B. Tetzlaff, H. Gömann, P. Kreins & F. Wendland (2008): Water fluxes and diffuse nitrate pollution at the river basin scale – Interfaces for the coupling of agroeconomic models with hydrologic models. European Water Journal, 17/18, 29-40.
  • Kunkel, R., M. Eisele, W. Schäfer, B. Tetzlaff & F. Wendland (2008): Planning and implementation of nitrogen reduction measures in catchment areas based on a determination and ranking of target areas. Desalination, 226, 1-12.
  • Montzka, C., M. Canty, P. Kreins, R. Kunkel, G. Menz, H. Vereecken & F. Wendland (2008): Multispectral remotely sensed data in modelling the annual variability of nitrate concentrations in the leachate. Environmental Modelling & Software, 23 (8), 1070-1081.
  • Guse, B., A. Bronstert, M. Rode, B. Tetzlaff & F. Wendland (2007): Application of two phosphorus models with different complexities in a mesoscale river catchment. Advances in Geosciences, 11, 77-84.
  • Tetzlaff, B., P. Kreins, R. Kunkel & F. Wendland (2007): Area-differentiated modelling of P-fluxes in heterogeneous macroscale river basins. Water Science and Technology, 55 (3), 123-131.
  • Tetzlaff, B. & F. Wendland (2007): P-pollution in a heavily urbanized river basin from point and diffuse sources - the River Ruhr case study (Germany). Water Science and Technology, 56 (1), 29-37.
  • Tetzlaff, B., R. Kunkel, W. Schäfer & F. Wendland (2007): Determination and ranking of target areas in catchments for the implementation of nitrogen reduction measures. Advances in Geosciences, 11, 69-75.
  • Wendland, F., R. Kunkel, H. Gömann & P. Kreins (2007): Water fluxes and diffuse nitrate pollution at the river basin scale: Interfaces for the coupling of agroeconomical models with hydrological approaches. Water Science and Technology, 55 (3), 133-142.
  • Kreins, P., H. Gömann, S. Herrmann, R. Kunkel & F. Wendland (2007): Integrated agricultural and hydrological modelling within an intensive livestock region. Advances in the Economics of Environmental Resources, 7, 113-143.
  • Gömann, H., P. Kreins, R. Kunkel & F. Wendland (2005): Model based impact analysis of policy options aiming at reducing diffuse pollution by agriculture - a case study for the river Ems and a sub-catchment of the Rhine. Environmental Modelling & Software, 20, 261-271.
  • Kunkel, R., H. Bogena, H. Goemann, P. Kreins & F. Wendland (2005): Management of regional German river catchments (REGFLUD) - impact of nitrogen reduction measures on the nitrogen load in the River Ems and the River Rhine. Water Science and Technology, 51, 291-299.
  • Wendland, F., H. Bogena, H. Goemann, J. F. Hake, P. Kreins & R. Kunkel (2005): Impact of nitrogen reduction measures on the nitrogen loads of the river Ems and Rhine (Germany). Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 30, 527-541.
  • Gömann, H., P. Kreins, R. Kunkel & F. Wendland (2004): Model based impact analysis of policy options aiming at reducing diffuse pollution by agriculture: a case study for the river Ems and a sub-catchment of the Rhine. Environmental Modelling & Software, 20, 261-271.
  • Kunkel, R., M. Bach, H. Behrendt & F. Wendland (2004): Groundwater-borne nitrate intakes into surface waters in Germany. Water Science and Technology, 49, 11-19.
  • Wendland, F., R. Kunkel & H. J. Voigt (2004): Assessment of groundwater residence times in the pore aquifers of the River Elbe Basin. Environmental Geology, 46, 1-9.
  • Gömann, H., P. Kreins, R. Kunkel & F. Wendland (2003): Koppelung agrarökonomischer und hydrologischer Modelle. Agrarwirtschaft, 52, 195-203.
  • Narula, K. K., N. K. Bansal, A. K. Gosain & F. Wendland (2003): Area-differentiated modelling of excess nutrient and contaminant leaching risks at the river-basin scale using a hydrological approach in India. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 19, 225-242.
  • Wendland, F., R. Kunkel, A. Grimvall, B. Kronvang & D. I. Muller-Wohlfeil (2002): The SOIL-N/WEKU model system - a GIS-supported tool for the assessment and management of diffuse nitrogen leaching at the scale of river basins. Water Science and Technology, 45, 285-292.
  • Müller-Wohlfeil, D. I., B. Kronvang, S. E. Larsen, N. B. Ovesen & F. Wendland (2001): Establishment of a harmonized tool for calculating river discharge and nitrogen loads from unmonitored areas in Denmark. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part B-Hydrology Oceans and Atmosphere, 26, 617-622.
  • Wendland, F., R. Kunkel, A. Grimvall, B. Kronvang & D. I. Muller-Wohlfeil (2001): Model system for the management of nitrogen leaching at the scale of river basins and regions. Water Science and Technology, 43, 215-222.
  • Kunkel, R., F. Wendland & H. Albert (1999): Zum Nitratabbau in den grundwasserführenden Gesteinsschichten des Elbeeinzugsgebietes. Wasser und Boden, 51, 16-19.
  • Wendland, F., M. Bach & R. Kunkel (1998): The influence of nitrate reduction strategies on the temporal development of the nitrate pollution of soil and groundwater throughout Germany - a regionally differentiated case study. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 50, 167-179.
  • Wendland, F. (1994): Modelling the nitrate flow in the groundwater provinces of the "old" federal states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Ecological Modelling, 75, 385-397.
  • Wendland, F., H. Albert, M. Bach & R. Schmidt (1994): Potential nitrate pollution of ground-water in Germany: a supraregional differentiated model. Environmental Geology, 24, 1-6.
  • Wendland, F., H. Albert, M. Bach & R. Schmidt (1994): Atlas zum Nitratstrom in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Deutsche Gewässerkundliche Mitteilungen, H, 37-41.
Last Modified: 25.05.2022