A Brief History of JCNS
or How Distributed Neutron Scattering Came About
15. Juli 1958
Detailed planning takes place to establish the Institute for Reactor Materials and the Institute for Neutron Physics.
28. Sep. 1961
Inauguration of the Nuclear Research Centre Jülich (Kernforschungsanlage Jülich, KFA).
9. Okt. 1961
Establishment of the work group for Neutron Physics.
14. Nov. 1962
The reactor FRJ-2 (DIDO) at the Research Centre Jülich goes critical for the first time.
Jülich is involved as a possible location for a European very high flux reactor; the reactor was established, however, in Grenoble (->ILL). A cooperation was then set up with Grenoble and within this framework, a series of experiments and research projects are planned to take place in Jülich, and are still operated by Jülich scientists to the present day.
12. Juni 1964
Re-organization of the “Workgroup Institute for Reactor Materials” to “Institute for Reactor Materials”. Re-organization of the “Workgroup Institute for Neutron Physics” to the “Institute for Neutron Physics”.
After much discussion, the scope of solid state physics is broadened and the Institute for Neutron Physics is brought together with the relevant department of the Institute for Reactor Materials to form the Institute for Neutron and Solid State Physics. (Approved by the administrative board 23.11.1966).
An external building housing the neutron measuring instruments is constructed adjacent to the reactor building. After moderation in a cold source, the neutrons are fed into the experimental hall using a neutron guide. Instruments: small angle neutron scattering instrument, diffuse elastic diffractometer, backscattering spectrometer, cold three-axis spectrometer. Some of the instruments were novel at the time, such as the small angle neutron scattering instrument and the backscattering spectrometer.
In the effort to establish a central German solid state institute, after long and detailed discussions the Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart (Max Planck Institute) and Jülich (KFA) were founded. The Institute for Neutron and Solid State Physics serves as the basis for a total of 10 part-institutes, three of which are for neutron scattering (Prof. T. Springer, Prof. H. Stiller and Prof. W. Schmatz).
The Institute for Solid State Physics Jülich (IFF) is born.
KFA Scientific Report 1970:
Jülich produces a "Feasibility Study on Spallation Neutron Sources”.
The external neutron laboratory „ELLA“ next to the research reactor DIDO is ready for use after the “old“ measurement hall was dismantled. A new cold source was installed along with the complete renovation of the neutron guidance system with 58Ni. Two classic "pin-hole" small angle scattering instruments were newly installed, a double crystal diffractometer for “ultra“ small angle scattering, a backscattering spectrometer (PI-2), a diffractometer for diffuse elastic diffraction, a spin-echo spectrometer, and later a further small angle scattering instrument with a focusing mirror for momentum transfers Q in areas from 1e-4 1/A.
Based on experience gained during the feasibility study on the SNQ, Forschungszentrum Jülich provides important contributions to the technical design of the European Spallation Source (ESS). From 2000 onwards, the IFF is put in charge of the special interest group of the European community of users (as head of the Scientific Advisory Committee) and part of the body of ESS directors (Science Director of the ESS).
Jülich puts itself forward as one of the five possible sites for the establishment of the ESS.
Forschungszentrum Jülich signs a Cooperation Agreement with the Technische Universität München, the operator of the new research neutron source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz FRM II. Subsequently, Forschungszentrum Jülich equips an external station to be used by the Munich research reactor on the campus in Garching. Seven measurement instruments for use in neutron research to the value of a total of 45 million Euro are transported to Garching and operated independently by Jülich scientists.
16. Feb. 2006
The Jülich Center for Neutron Science is established.
2. Mai. 2006
DIDO is finally shut down after almost 44 years of operation..
A co-operation agreement is signed with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Through the construction and operation of the NSE at the SNS, we are allowed access to the instruments BASIS and POWGEN at ORNL (planned since 2002; inauguration 5 November 2009).
Expansion is planned:
In 2018 in southern Sweden, the most powerful neutron source in the world is due to go on line – the European Spallation Source ESS in Lund. Forschungszentrum Jülich will play an active part in this and planning begins.
Reorganization of the institutes IFF, ISB and IBN. JCNS is made into a separate, independent institute, comprising of the Institute for Neutron Scattering and the Institute of Scattering Methods. At the same time, the Institute for Neutron Scattering becomes part of the newly established Institute of Complex Systems (ICS).
JCNS intensifies the collaboration with the neutron source FRM II. Forschungszentrum Jülich and JCNS enter into the collaboration with the Technical University Munich, the Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht and the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin at the FRM II. The cooperation funded by the BMBF and the Bavarian Ministry of Science will have a budget of around € 300 million from 2011 – 2020. In addition, the national centres within the Helmholtz Association agreed to invest approximately € 30.3 million per year in neutron research.
Das Forschungszentrum. Eine Geschichte der KFA Jülich von ihrer Gründung bis 1980,
Bernd-A. Rusinek,Frankfurt/M., New York, 1996
An excerpt can be found at: File: IFF-Kapitel_aus_der_Geschichte_der_Kernforschungsanlage.pdf (PDF, 110 kB)
Chronik File: Chronik_Auszug_IFF.pdf (PDF, 132 kB)
along with press releases
Many thanks to Bernd-A.Rusinek; historian at the Central Library, who kindly made all the old source materials available.
Additional pictures (contributed by Dietmar Schwahn)